The duties and practices of people and organizations to ensure that individual’s personal information only flows from one entity to another according to legislated or otherwise broadly accepted norms and policies.

In the context of of health data: Confidentiality is breached whenever personal information is communicated that is not authorized by legislation, professional obligations, or under contractual duties.


  • Council of Canadian Academies (2015). ACCESSING HEALTH AND HEALTH-RELATED DATA IN CANADA The Expert Panel on Timely Access to Health and Social Data for Health Research and Health System Innovation.