The application of a set of data transformation techniques to de-identify data without any concern for the analytical utility of the data. This is a good approach for fields that are not required to be analyzed. Masking is applied to direct identifiers such as name and phone number. Masking techniques include, among others, removal of direct identifiers or replacement of direct identifiers with pseudonymsREFERENCE. El Emam, K. (2013). Privacy Analytics White Paper: Overview of Re-identification Risk Assessment and Anonymization Process. Ottawa (ON): Privacy Analytics, Inc.